Конспект лекцій тернопіль 2009 ббк 65. 050. 28+81. 43. 21-923. 1 Д-46 icon

Конспект лекцій тернопіль 2009 ббк 65. 050. 28+81. 43. 21-923. 1 Д-46


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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

ТЕРНОПІЛЬСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ЕКОНОМІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
ФАКУЛЬТЕТ МІЖНАРОДНОГО БІЗНЕСУ І МЕНЕДЖМЕНТУ


ДІЛОВЕ ЛИСТУВАННЯ ТА КОМУНІКАЦІЇ В БІЗНЕСІ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЮ МОВОЮ

КОНСПЕКТ ЛЕКЦІЙ


ТЕРНОПІЛЬ – 2009

ББК 65.050.28+81.43.21-923.1

Д-46


Ділове листування та комунікації в бізнесі англійською мовою: Конспект лекцій / Укл. Ю.О. Семенчук. – Тернопіль: Економічна думка, 2009. – 105 c.


Укладач: Семенчук Юліан Олексійович, кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент кафедри іноземних мов для зовнішньоекономічної діяльності ТНЕУ.


Рецензенти: Л.С. Курант, кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент, завідувач кафедри ділової комунікації та організаційної поведінки ТНЕУ;

І.О. Стешин, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент кафедри іноземних мов для зовнішньоекономічної діяльності ТНЕУ.


^ Рекомендовано до друку рішенням кафедри іноземних мов для ЗЕД (Протокол № 1 від 29 серпня 2008 р.) та науково-методичної ради факультету міжнародного бізнесу і менеджменту ТНЕУ (Протокол № 1 від 16 вересня 2008 р.).


Відповідальна за випуск: Н.С. Лиса, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент, завідувач кафедри іноземних мов для зовнішньоекономічної діяльності ТНЕУ.


Метою конспекту лекцій є надати студентам допомогу при підготовці до практичних занять з ділової кореспонденції та бізнес-комунікації, активізувати самостійну роботу, щоб сформувати у них стійкі навички і вміння як усного, так і писемного ділового спілкування в ситуаціях майбутньої професійної сфери діяльності. Запропоновані теми лекцій відповідають вимогам навчальних програм та відображають останні вітчизняні і зарубіжні теоретичні напрацювання в галузі ділового спілкування, а також враховують новітні підходи до забезпечення комунікативного спрямування навчальної діяльності. Матеріали з конспекту лекцій можуть бути корисні всім, хто цікавиться питаннями організації ділового усного і писемного спілкування англійською мовою, та використані для підвищення ефективності такого виду діяльності.


ISBN

© Семенчук Ю.О., 2009


Module 1. Core Concepts in Business Communication

Topic 1. UNDERSTANDING BUSINESS COMMUNICATION


PLAN.

  1. Communicating in organizations.

  2. The components of communication.

  3. Verbal communication.

  4. Directions of communication.

  5. Barriers to communication.

  6. Ethics in business communication.


1. Communicating in organizations


Effective communication skills will help you succeed in business. Communication means the exchange of ideas using common symbols. You communicate only when your audience understands your message – communication is a two-way street. Becoming a good business communicator takes practice, but it’s worth the trouble.


An organization is a group of people working together to achieve a common goal. When are managers and other employees communicating? When they are reading reports, drafting email messages, attending meetings, conducting interviews, conferring with subordinates, holding business lunches, reading mail, dictating correspondence, making presentations, etc. Good communication skills are crucial to your success.


Communication is the means by which information is shared, activities are coordinated, and decision making is enhanced.


Communication is the process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages – sometimes through spoken or written words and sometimes through such nonverbal means as facial expressions, gestures,, and voice qualities.


Typical characteristics of business communication:

  1. it is written for an audience who will find the information useful;

  1. it is written under time and money constraints;

  1. it often has more than one purpose;

  1. tone and attitude towards the reader is as important as the information conveyed.


^ 2. The components of communication


The components of communication consist of the stimulus, filter, message, medium and destination. Ideally, the process ends with feedback to the sender.

A stimulus is an event that creates within an individual the need to communicate. Our knowledge, experience, and viewpoints act as a filter to help us interpret (decode) the stimulus. We formulate (encode) a verbal or nonverbal response (message) to the stimulus. To transmit the message to the receiver we must choose a medium, or the form of message to send. The message reaches its destination and, if successful, is perceived accurately by the receiver.


^ A COMMUNICATION MODEL

Two basic elements are necessary before any communication transaction can take place: a sender and a receiver. The channel is the means by which the message is transmitted. Feedback is the response or lack of it. The filter is the total of the communicator’s experiences leading up to the communication. Noise is anything that interferes with the free flow of information.


Decoding and encoding a message causes a lot of troubles in business communication.

  1. Denotation (dictionary meaning of the word) and connotation (the meaning people attach to the word).

  1. Cognitive dissonance.

  1. Cultural differences.


3. Verbal communication


Verbal communication is composed of words – either written or spoken.

^ ORAL COMMUNICATION

When managers attend meetings, ask questions and answer colleagues’ questions, make presentations and appraise performance, handle customer complaints or give instructions – they communicate and perform one of the most common functions in business activity.

  1. Advantages of oral communication over written communication.

  1. The importance of listening skills for effective oral communication.


^ WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Writing is more difficult than speaking. Writing is crucial to the modern organization because it serves as the major source of documentation. Examples of written communication include emails, memos, letters, reports, contracts, notices, sales literature, etc. Also a crucial skill for managers around the world is the ability to write clearly expressed and logically argued reports, letters, fax messages, minutes of meetings, and memoranda in English. The task is to develop writing techniques in order to make the written transfer of this information as smooth as possible, leaving no possibility that the reader might miss or misunderstand any facts or points.

4. Directions of communication


Communication must flow freely through formal and informal channels.

^ THE FORMAL COMMUNICATION NETWOTK

  1. Downward communication.

  1. Upward communication.

  1. Horizontal communication.

  1. Cross-channel communication.


THE INFORMAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK

  1. The grapevine.

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of the grapevine.


^ 5. Barriers to communication


Barriers to communication can create an impenetrable “brick wall” that makes effective communication impossible.

Verbal barriers:

  1. Inadequate knowledge or vocabulary;

  1. Differences in interpretation;

  1. Language differences;

  1. Over abstraction and ambiguity;

  1. Polarization (i.e., inappropriate either/or logic).

Nonverbal barriers:

  1. Inappropriate or conflicting signals;

  1. Difference in perception;

  1. Inappropriate emotions;

  1. Distractions.


^ 6. Ethics in business communication


Ethics and communication. The matter of ethics governs not only one’s behavior but also one’s communication of behavior. In other words, how we use language involves ethical choices. Consider the following:

  1. Oral and written defamation (slander and libel).

  1. Invasion of privacy.

  1. Fraud (making a deliberately false statement or concealing some information).

  1. Misrepresentation (a false statement made innocently with no intent to deceive the other party).

  1. Other ethical considerations.

The matter of ethics governs not only one’s behavior but also one’s communication of behavior. In other words, how we use language involves ethical choices.

Six basic principles of business etHiCS:

  1. Be in time.

  2. Be discreet.

  3. Be courteous, pleasant and positive.

  4. Be concerned with others, not just yourself.

  5. Dress appropriately.

  6. Use proper written and spoken language.

Module 1. Core Concepts in Business Communication

Topic 2. WORK-TEAM COMMUNICATION


Plan.

  1. Communicating in work teams.

  2. Nonverbal communication.

  3. Communicating in a diverse environment.

  4. Developing listening skills.

  5. Business meetings.

  6. Business etiquette.


^ 1. Communicating in work teams


A team is a group of individuals who depend on one another to accomplish a common objective. Successful interpersonal behavior in organizations depends on communicators’ willingness to work toward openness, cooperation, trust, teamwork, and group or organizational goals.

  1. Teams versus individuals.

  1. The danger of social loafing.


^ THE VARIABLES OF GROUP COMMUNICATION

Conflict. Groups can use conflict productively to generate and test ideas before they are implemented. Conflict, then, is the essence of group interaction.

Conformity. It is an agreement with regard to ideas, rules, or principles.

Consensus. Consensus means reaching a decision that best reflects the thinking of all team members. Consensus does not mean a unanimous vote.


The initial group goal is to get to know one another. We cannot inform others unless we know who they are, what they already know, what they need, and why they need it. When we receive, process, and evaluate incoming information accurately, we begin to know how to influence and inform.


Giving and receiving feedback. The guidelines for giving feedback:

  1. Be descriptive and give specific examples.

  1. Avoid using labels, such as unprofessional, irresponsible, etc.

  1. Don’t exaggerate and be exact.

  1. Speak for yourself and don’t refer to anonymous people.

  1. Use “I” statements to tell specifically how someone’s behavior affects you.


^ CONFLICT RESOLUTION

If a group develops itself into a team, most conflicts can be prevented.

  1. Think of each problem as a group problem.

  1. Examine how to encourage constructive behavior.

  1. Consider how to contribute more to the collaborative effort.

  1. Be realistic – you are responsible for behaving ethically, but not for the solving other people’s personal problems.


^ 2. Nonverbal communication


Nonverbal messages are unwritten and unspoken. Nonverbal communication implies the following:

  1. Body movement. Facial expressions. Eye contact. Gestures.

  1. Physical appearance.

  1. Voice qualities (volume, speed, pitch, tone, accent)

  1. Time.

  1. Touch.

  1. Space and territory (intimate zone; personal zone; social zone; public zone).


We cannot but communicate nonverbally. Evaluate other’s nonverbals cautiously. Control the nonverbal signals you send. They carry higher risks of ambiguity for several reasons.

  1. Nonverbals occur in clusters – in endless combinations (eye muscles, hands, surrounding space).

  1. Different cultures’ meanings for nonverbal signals differ.

  1. When a nonverbal message contradicts a verbal one, receivers tend to believe the nonverbal message.

  1. The same nonverbal signal can send different messages.

  1. The same nonverbal message can be sent by the same person in multiple ways.


3. Communicating in a diverse environment


International business would not be possible without international communication. Ethnocentrism and cultural differences do have profound effects on our lives and diversity poses a growing challenge for managers.


^ CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

Cultures differ not only in their verbal language but also in their nonverbal language. Also cultures differ in the traits they value:

  1. emphasis on individualism;

  1. time orientation;

  1. power distance (decisions are made by the boss only);

  1. uncertainty avoidance (people want predictable and certain future);

  1. formality (importance to tradition, ceremony, social rules, rank);

  1. materialism (the acquisition of money and material objects);

  1. context-sensibility (emphasizing the surrounding circumstances to build relationships and establish trust).

^ STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNICATING ACROSS CULTURES

Maintain formality. Most cultures value a formal approach to business dealings.

Show respect. Listen carefully; learn about your host country.

Communicate clearly. Avoid slang; be specific; encourage questions; use a variety of media; avoid attempts at humor; speak plainly and slowly.

Value diversity. Cultural diversity provides a rich environment for solving problems and for expanding horizons.


^ 4. Developing listening skills


There is a difference between hearing and listening. For oral communication to be effective we require good listening skills because nearly 60% of all communication problems in business are caused by poor listening. The good listener is much more likely

  1. To receive useful information;

  1. To learn how to meet expectations

  1. To learn how to avoid career-limiting errors.


^ KEYS TO BETTER LISTENING

  1. Give the speaker your undivided attention: physical distractions; mental distractions; avoid dismissing a topic.

  1. Stay open-minded: listen objectively; be willing to accept new information; concentrate on the content of the message; don’t jump to conclusions too quickly.

  1. Don’t interrupt: interruptions are rude; they interfere with the speaker’s train of thought and hinder communication.

  1. Involve yourself: summarize to yourself what the speaker is saying; jot down points; concentrate on the main ideas; evaluate the validity of the overall argument.


^ 5. Business meetings


The ability to conduct and participate in meetings is a crucial managerial skill. To use meetings as an effective managerial tool, you need to know not only how to run them but also when to call them and how to follow up afterward.


Planning the meeting. Managers must make sure they’re getting their money’s worth from a meeting, and that guarantee requires careful planning:

  1. identifying the purpose of the meeting;

  1. determining whether a meeting is necessary;

  1. preparing an agenda for the meeting;

  1. deciding who should attend;

  1. determining logistics.


Conducting the meeting. A manager must be a leader during the meeting, keeping the group focused on the point and encouraging participation. An efficient leader keeps in mind the following:

  1. punctuality;

  1. following the agenda;

  1. leading the meeting;

  1. parliamentary procedure – the minority is heard and the majority prevails.


Following up the meeting. If the meeting was routine and informal, follow it up with a memo summarizing the major points of the meeting. Formal meetings or meetings where controversial ideas were discussed require formal minutes of what took place. Minutes are an official record of the proceedings; they summarize what was discussed and what decisions were made. While chairing the meeting, follow the guidelines given in table 1.2.1. While participating in the meeting, follow the guidelines given in table 1.2.2.


Table 1.2.1. Chairing the meeting

DO

DON’T

  1. Plan the meeting thoroughly: agenda, format, people, minutes.

  1. Begin by reviewing objectives.

  1. Encourage ideas from all the participants.

  1. Listen: clarify, summarize and focus the discussion.

  1. Impose control on strong personalities.

  1. Respect time: maintain pace but slow down for analysis.

  1. Guarantee result: identify the issues and find consensus.

  1. Summarize decisions at the end.

  1. Implement any action plan and organize the next meeting.

  1. Forget the environment: you may need name cards, flipcharts, refreshments.

  1. Dominate and bully people with your authority.

  1. Allow over-elaboration or irrelevance.

  1. Postpone decisions too quickly to another meeting.

  1. Close a meeting without reviewing decisions.


Table 1.2.2. Participating in the meeting

DO

DON’T

  1. Read the agenda before and bring supporting documentation.

  1. Speak with sufficient volume and clarity for everyone to hear you.

  1. Respect and support other speakers: develop their ideas.

  1. Be flexible and willing to improvise.

  1. Listen and check to make sure that you understand.

  1. Give direct replies: don’t digress.

  1. Build to a consensus.

  1. Leave meetings to make “important” phone calls.

  1. Interrupt too much or disagree too strongly.

  1. React personally to differences of opinion.

  1. Use over-complex language.

  1. Pretend to understand.

  1. Leave meeting without clearly understanding the decision.



^ 6. Business etiquette


Business etiquette is the practice of polite and appropriate behavior in the business setting. Each organization has its own rules about what is and is not considered fitting in terms of dress, ways of addressing superiors, importance of punctuality, and the like. In addition, every country and every culture has its own rules. Etiquette is important when

  1. meeting and greeting;

  1. dining;

  1. giving gifts;

  1. dressing appropriately;

  1. around the office.


Etiquette of the business communication plays an important role in the success or failure in business. Good manners, being polite and considerate, using appropriate language and dressing are some of the traits which generally make people likely to succeed.

Module 1. Core Concepts in Business Communication

Topic 3. COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY


PLAN.

  1. Accessing electronic information. The Internet.

  2. Sharing electronic information.

  3. Telephoning in business.


^ 1. Accessing electronic information. The Internet


The Internet gives us an access to information stored in thousands of computers worldwide and provides us with the ability to chat with anyone around the globe at any hour of the day. Much of the information we need is too new and more current than printed databases because they are updated weekly or monthly. Finally, electronic databases are extremely flexible, economical, and easy to use.

^ INTERNET RESOURCES

A mailing list is a discussion group in which messages are sent directly to members via email. A newsgroup is a discussion group in which messages are posted at the newsgroup site.

BROWSING AND SEARCHING THE INTERNET

The massive amount of information available on the Internet is not neatly and logically organized for easy search and retrieval.

  1. Browsing the Internet

  1. Searching the Internet

^ EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION

Don’t believe everything you read! You are responsible for the quality of retrieved from the Internet information you include in your correspondence, reports, and presentations.


2. Sharing electronic information


You will often incorporate the information you access electronically into your own electronic communications – correspondence, reports, phone calls, and the like.


^ FAX COMMUNICATION

Fax machines are fast, inexpensive, easy to use, and available worldwide. In addition, personal computers with fax modems allow computer users to send and receive documents through their personal computers. Follow these guidelines:

  1. Always use a cover sheet when you send a fax.

  1. Ensure that the document to be faxed is legible.

  1. Be mindful of the cost of faxing.

  1. Be courteous.



EMAIL

Email may be your most frequent form of written communication on the job. Email is a message sent both internally and externally through computers. It is a fast and inexpensive way to communicate and a less formal method of correspondence. There are usually five parts to an email message: the sender’s name, the date and the time, the address of the person receiving the message, the subject, and the message. Follow the rules of etiquette (table 1.3.1).


Table 1.3.1. The rules of etiquette


The Good E-mailer

The Bad E-mailer

  1. Keeps messages short.

  1. Presents information clearly with bullet points.

  1. Enters a precise subject in the subject box.

  1. Doesn’t over-use the reply function.

  1. Checks their mail box at least three times daily.

  1. Limits personal mail and small talk.

  1. Gives people time to reply.

  1. Doesn’t forward mail without thinking.

  1. Creates a filing system for mail attachments.

  1. Reports offensive mail.

  1. Adds key information in the e-mail signature.

  1. Never abuses the system for private messages.

  1. Thinks twice about attaching very large files.

  1. Telephones if an immediate answer is required.

  1. Keeps address book up-to-date.

  1. Is professional at all times.

  1. Writes too informally.

  1. Writes in capitals for effect.

  1. Sends huge attachments.

  1. Loves abbreviations / symbols.

  1. Uses e-mail to avoid phoning.

  1. Sends offensive material.

  1. Prints every e-mail.


GROUPWARE

It is a form of software that automates information sharing between two or more remote users and enables them to communicate electronically and coordinate their efforts easily. For example, groupware can function quite effectively for editing team writing projects.


^ TELECONFERECING AND VIDEOCONFERENCING

A teleconference is a meeting of three or more people, at least some of whom are in different locations, who communicate via telephone. A videoconference is an interactive meeting between two or more people using video linkups at two or more sites.





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